Sunflower

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Sunflower is the most important oilseed crop of world and domestic agriculture. In the Russian Federation, it accounts for more than 75% of the sown area of ​​all oilseeds and up to 90% of the produced vegetable oil. Sunflower oil in calories (39 kJ), digestibility (86–91%), taste and physiological value significantly surpasses many fats. The seeds of modern varieties and hybrids of sunflower contain 50–56% of semi-drying oil and 16–20% of protein. Its oil contains 69% biologically active linoleic acid and 20% oleic acid, as well as provitamins A, D, E, K, phosphatides, fat-soluble vitamins, which increases its nutritional value. It is used as edible oil in its natural form and in the manufacture of margarine, mayonnaise, canned fish and vegetables, bakery and confectionery products. For the first time in the world, domestic breeders managed to create a sunflower variety (Pervenets variety) with 75–80% oleic and 12-17% linoleic acids in oil. Such high oleic oil is not inferior in quality to olive (Provence) and can be a substitute for it. It has a great advantage over conventional sunflower oil in terms of oxidation stability both during storage and during intense heating.

Sunflower oil is also used for the production of drying oil, paints, varnishes, soap making, in the production of oleic acid, stearin, linoleum, oilcloth.

When processing seeds into oil, about 35% of oilseed meal or meal is by-produced. Meal contains 32–35% protein, 1% fat (in cake - 5–7%), about 20% carbohydrates, 13–14% pectin, 3–3.5% phytin (biologically active substance), vitamins of group B, phosphorus, calcium and other valuable substances.

Sunflower meal is widely used as a concentrated feed for animals, as well as as a protein component in the production of various animal feeds. 1 kg of meal contains 1.02 feed. units and 363 g of digestible protein.

Sunflower protein is the most complete and balanced amino acid composition. It includes most of the essential amino acids, and in a favorable ratio. 1 kg of meal contains: lysine - 12.8, tryptophan - 5.1, tyrosine - 6.5, cystine - 2.7, arginine - 29.3, histidine - 8.7 g.

Valuable food products are prepared from processed meal and peeled seeds (kernels): halva, kozinaki, etc.

When processing seeds, husk is obtained as waste, which serves as the most valuable raw material for the hydrolysis industry. From it, furfural, ethyl alcohol, fodder yeast and other products are produced. The milled husk can be used for feeding to ruminants.

Sunflower baskets are great animal feed. The mass of dry baskets is 50-60% of the mass of seeds. The threshed sunflower baskets contain (% on absolutely dry matter) fat - 3.5-4, protein - 5-8, fiber - 14-17, ash elements (phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium) - 13-15, without nitrogenous extractive substances - up to 60. Baskets are rich in high-quality pectin substances, the content of which reaches 22–27%.

Tall hybrids and sunflower varieties are grown on silage, which is a valuable animal feed. When harvesting sunflower for silage during the mass flowering period, the green mass of plants contains about 70% of water and mineral salts dissolved in it, 3% protein, 1% fat, 17% carbohydrates, up to 55 mg% carotene, a lot of phosphorus and calcium,

High-quality paper and artificial silk are made from the core of sunflower stems.

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